The Millennium Gap: Why Did It Take So Long For Distilling To Take Off?

Distillation, as a process, has been known since at least the first century AD. Yet a readily reproducible process of distillation did not really take off until the 13th century or so. Why the gap of 1000 years?

The answer is almost banal. Yes, a handful of people knew how to distill. The problem was with the technology. Glass broke easily, and ceramic implements were little better, as they transferred heat ineffectively, and inconsistently, depending upon the mineral content of the ceramics. In short, no one knew how to make good distilling vessels.

It was the Venetians, who combined different glass-making techniques (Roman and Syrian), that were able to consistently produce high-quality glassware. However, this didn’t occur until the mid 1200′s in history’s timeline.  Once this glass took off, distilling on a regular basis took off soon afterwards.

Here’s an interesting side-note: You can still see remnants of Venice’s glass industry in work if you visit the city. Murano island has all sorts of places that both sell and pay homage to the industry that helped solidified Venice’s empire.

The Historical Place of Sugar and Honey

Note: From time to time, I’m going to repost items from the archives of Accidental Hedonist. Some of these items will be of note only to myself. Others may/should provide context for ideas I’m playing with on the site.

Initially posted: December 7, 2009 

At the suggestion of my publisher, my initial idea of a book about chocolate has evolved into a broader subject which may or may not evolve into a book of some sort. So for the past week or so, I’ve been immersing myself into the history and anthropology of sweets in order to write a passable book proposal.

During the course of the readings, there has been one belief of mine that has been pretty much dismissed or diminished by anthropologists. Foods that we deem as “sweet” have, for the most part, been less of an influence on nutrition and less of an influence on food culture than we in the modern age may believe.

In reading Sidney W. Mintz’s book Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History, he states that, for the most part , civilizations “have been built on the cultivation of a particular complex carbohydrate, such as maize or potatoes or rice or millet or wheat.” The rest of a culture’s food choices have evolved in such a way to make these foundation foods both interesting and varied. Think of the many ways that rice dishes are presented in East Asia, or corn dishes are offered in Mexico, and you’ll have a rough idea on what Mintz is trying to say.

Fruits, at least those domesticated to a point where they could be grown on a regular basis, weren’t as prevalent as some of us would like to believe. Apples have been around since about 8,000 BCE and dates in 6,000 BCE, but the age of domesticated fruits truly doesn’t occur until 4000 BCE with citrus, watermelons, and grapes becoming a farmed crop. That’s 6,000 years into the civilized era. By this time, Homo sapiens have already mastered the way of farming the carbohydrates they need to survive.

Because of this “complex carbohydrates first!” trait found in many cultures, simple carbohydrates take on a unique, and at times, even relegated position in food history. Honey, which popped onto the scene at around 5,000 BCE became an exalted product. Many religions incorporated it into their rituals and undertakings, making it one of the first food stuffs to reach (literally) cult status.

Sucrose (or granulated sugar, as we know it) is a recent food product, not hitting the Western World until about 700 AD (give or take) when Muslim expansion brought the sugar cane into the Southern European growing regions. Its influence was so profound upon the Europeans that finding adequate places for sugar crops and plantations was one of the driving forces of colonization into the New World, second only behind the quest for metal commodities.

While the importance of these sweeteners in food history is absolute, there’s still something about them that separates them from other foods. They are less important than salt, at least from a bio-chemical point of view. But their influence seems greater than other spices in the world.

To me, this is what makes processed sugars so profound. They are venerated, yet we can survive without them. They were one of the world’s pre-eminent luxury items, but now even a child can by a piece of candy for mere pennies. When I see a piece of candy, it’s interesting for me to see what part of history had to occur in order for this candy to exist. What’s even more interesting is that I can now dismiss that piece of candy without consumption, an idea that would have seemed wasteful two hundred years ago.

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