For reference and note taking. I should add that this is an incomplete list.
Amber Malt: Gives copper coloring and a biscuit-type of flavor.
2-Row Barley: Adds little to no flavor, but does produce a high amount of starch which results in high yield of fermentable sugar.
6-Row Barley: Provides a fair amount of tannins, and some starch (but not as much as 2-Row), but not much else.
Black Patent: Provides little to no malt flavor, but plenty of dark coloring and burnt flavors.
British Mild Malt: Provides gold to amber color, and a lightly toasted malt flavors.
Caramel: Provides balance and body to pilsner styles. Gives the candylike sweetness of toffee and caramel and can provide flavor of raisins and prunes. Produces colors of golden sunshine to burnished sunset-red to beer, depending on which recipe used.
Carapil: Adds body and helps in foam retention. Provides little to no taste.
Chocolate Malt: Heavily roasted malt that provides toasted, nutty flavors.
Crystal Malt: Has crystallized sugars that provide sweetness. Sugar also helps retains the head. Malt gives a gold to amber color.
Munich Malt: Provides malty, caramel flavors and amber color.
Rauch Malt: German malt is smoked over a beechwood fire for a drier, sharper, obvious more wood-smoked flavor.
Roasted Barley: Unmalted grain that provides a slightly bitter, roasted coffee-like flavor. Gives dark brown coloring.
Rye: Gives a mild spice flavor, for the Rye styles of beer.
Toasted Malt: Another unmalted grain that gives a toasted grain flavor, and a light-brown color.
Unmalted Wheat: Used in Wit biers and Lambics. Gives a permanent starch haze to the beer. Unmalted wheat has a very intense wheat flavor.
Victory Malt: A lightly roasted malt that provides a warm biscuity/toasted character to Ales and Lagers
Vienna Malt: Similar to Munich Malt, but provides fuller body and an amber color.
Wheat: Malted grain used in white and of course wheat beer. Provides sour or bitter taste, with sometimes a hint of fruitiness. Excessive proteins found in wheat gives the beer a cloudy appearance.